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Glossary

  • This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'. Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty).
  • The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.
  • The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:Buccal (via the oral mucosa), inhalative (via the lungs), oral / peroral (via the mouth), sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue), topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect), transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)
  • In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action. A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.
  • A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect - at this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).
  • Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.
  • Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.
  • In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.
  • Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint". In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3". A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing. If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas. The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.
  • Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA. CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.
  • Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant. For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.
  • The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.
  • A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.
  • The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures. A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss"). Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.
  • Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent. Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.
  • Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.
  • CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.
  • Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.
  • In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes. The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.
  • In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product. The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.
  • MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.
  • The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all). Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene. Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).
  • In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests. Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.
  • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.
  • This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.
  • A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.
  • Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect. The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.
  • A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients. Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available. With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
  • As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.
#survey

Opinion Poll: Cannabis Legalization in Germany 2019

04/12/2019 7 MIN. READ Kevin Urbaum
04/12/2019 7 MIN. READ Kevin Urbaum

As a label centered around holistic well-being, at VAAY we value open information and are driven to implementing methods that improve societal welfare. For both its healing and soothing properties, we believe that hemp has a strong potential for both society as well as the economy. As the cannabis industry is experiencing a rapidly changing landscape, with a shift in public and political attitudes due to the expanding legalization of cannabis for medical purposes, it is undeniable that the discourse is gaining more and more traction. To add value to this discussion, we collected over 12,000 survey responses in Germany to evaluate the public sentiment on cannabis legalization.

This survey was designed to measure the variety of opinions on cannabis legalization in Germany based on a series of demographics. In order to collect our data, we commissioned Civey to conduct the poll. The participants were then categorized by their State of residence, followed by their voting intent in the federal election. The results were further elaborated by analyses relating to the respondents’ age, marital status, employment level, gender, and whether or not they have children in the household. Overall, the conclusion is one of the most representative surveys on cannabis legalization in Germany, illustrating a clearer image of the current public opinion on the subject.

“With the European cannabis industry having a potential market value of cannabis at €123 billion* by 2028, we wanted to expand the discussion through reliable data and intelligence,” comments Finn Age Hänsel, Co-Founder and MD of VAAY. “As Europe’s biggest economy and a core member of the European Union, we wanted to find out what the public opinion on cannabis is in Germany. Given its influence, it would be interesting to see what the spillover effects could be in Europe if parliament advocated for the legalization of cannabis.”

 

Federal States and Administrative Districts 

A detailed chart of the answers on state basis can be found at the bottom of the article

Overall, all federal States in Germany are in favor of the legalization of cannabis to some extent. The largest share of support in eight out of sixteen states is for the legalization, regulation, and taxation of cannabis (Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Berlin, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Baden-Württemberg), where Berlin is the closest to having a majority of support for complete legalization at 49.7%. Among these States, the average percentage supporting the legalization of cannabis for medical use is 42.44% whereas the average percentage in favor of its legalization with regulation and taxation is at 41.16%. Overall, at least 75% of survey respondents in each State are in favor of the legalization of cannabis for either medical or recreational use. On average, under ten percent of respondents in Germany overall, irrespective of their federal State, support the criminalization of cannabis. The largest share of support for its criminalization is in Saxony-Anhalt at 16%, whereas the lowest is in Bavaria at 6.9%. 


In Germany, States are directly represented in the Federal Council (Bundesrat) which takes part in the legislative body alongside the national parliament (Bundestag). While the majority in all States support the legalization of cannabis to some extent, States where the largest share of participants support the legalization, taxation, and regulation of cannabis have a total share of more than half of the seats (35 out of 69 seats) in the Bundesrat whose allocation is based on population. The data shows that the trend for administrative districts are similar, with differences in several districts in Northern Westphalia (Detmond), Bavaria (Lower Franconia, Upper Palatinate), and Rhineland-Palatinate (Rhine-Hesse-Palatinate) where the largest vote share in these districts differed from the State-level.

 

Election Intention (Federal-level)

The data shows that in total, the majority of survey respondents irrespective of their voting intent in the German federal elections are in favor of the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes or complete legalization with regulation and taxation. Of the major political parties represented in the national parliament and European Parliament, over 50% of respondents who intend to vote for the Left Party (Die Linke, 56.6%) and the Green Party (Grüne, 58.0%) are in favor of legalization with regulation and taxation. In complement, the majority of those intending to vote for the Christian Democrats are in favor of the current state of cannabis legalization for medical purposes (CDU/CSU, 52.9%). CDU/CSU is also the party with the largest percentage in favor of legalization for medical purposes, with the least for complete legalization (27.5%). Individuals intending to vote for the remaining parties in the survey - the Free Democratic Party, Social Democratic Party, and the Alternative for Germany - had similar results (legalization with regulation and taxation: FDP 38.7%, SPD 46.0%, AfD 30.3%; legalization for medical purposes: FDP: 40.9%, SPD: 41.7%, AfD: 46.8%). By and large, voters who qualified as ‘Other’ (Sonstige) shared similar results to the Green Party (legalization with regulation and taxation: 57.3%, legalization for medical purposes: 29.6%). Respondents supporting Alternative for Germany (AfD) had the largest share for the criminalization of cannabis, at 16.8%, followed by the Free Democratic Party (FDP, 12.8%) and Christian Democrats (CDU/CSU, 10.9%). Overall, voters, irrespective of their voting intent are in favor of at least the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes at over 75% for each party, with the Green Party having the highest share at 91%. 

 

Age

Respondents by age from the youngest to oldest demographics show an inverse relationship between support for legalization with regulation and cannabis legalization for medical purposes. However, all groups have a minority faction supporting the criminalization of cannabis of less than ten percent. 65.3% of respondents aged 18-29 support the complete legalization of cannabis, whereas 20.3% support its legalization for medical consumption. Germany’s low fertility rate and aging average population prove that it is critical to understand the subject of cannabis legalization from an age perspective. While less than 10% of all age groups support the complete criminalization of cannabis, the data shows that there is an overwhelming response for at least the legalization of cannabis for medical usage, with the oldest survey respondents (aged 65+) supporting this option the most at 56.1%.

 

Employment

Based on survey results, all employment categories support the legalization of cannabis for either medical purposes or recreational use by at least 80%, with the support for its criminalization below 11% across the board. Students are by far and large the largest proponents for its complete legalization at 72.1%, followed by employees (49.7%). Unemployed persons share a similar percentage between regulated legalization and legalization for medical purposes (39.9% for medical purposes, 42.8% for complete legalization with regulation and taxation). Self-employed individuals share a similar sentiment, however lean more toward medical purposes (45.4%). Similar to the age demographic, the majority of pensioners support the consumption of medical marijuana at 56.6%, with 27.7% supporting its legalization for recreational use. 3% of pensioners would like cannabis to be illegal with impunity whereas and 9.2% are in favor of its criminalization.

 

Gender

Among male and female respondents, the results show that the majority are in favor of at least the medical legalization of cannabis. 33.9% of men are in favor of the current legal status of cannabis as a medical prescription, whereas nearly half of the percentage of male voters at 48.7% support the full legalization of cannabis with regulation and taxation. While the majority of women are generally against the criminalization of cannabis, their results show the opposite of male voters in the extent of legality: 49.6% of female respondents advocate for the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes, whereas 35.9% of women support the full legalization of cannabis. With respect to outlawing cannabis, more male voters share this perspective at 10.4% compared to 7.7% of women.

 

Marital Status

People who are married show the widest support for medical marijuana, at 46.7%, with 36.0% in favor of regulated legalization. Comparatively, our data shows that the majority of single survey respondents support the complete legalization of cannabis at 57.9%, whereas 28.6% support its medical prescription. Interestingly, divorcees are split in their views on cannabis legalization, with the share of votes being split into 43.0% and 46.0%, with complete legalization being the latter. Divorcees are also the demographic with the least percentage of respondents against the criminalization of cannabis, at 6.7% with 2.8% supporting illegality but with impunity.

 

Children in the Household

Parents overall view cannabis favorably with 44.1% of this demographic in support of the legalization and taxation of cannabis, a little over seven percent more than those in support of medically prescribed cannabis (36.9%). Comparatively, more parents also support the legalization of cannabis granted there is regulation and taxation in relation to those without children, whose support is at 41.1%, slightly preferring medically prescribed cannabis at 44.2% instead. Compared to the other demographics measured, parents are mildly more reserved about the legality of cannabis, with 10.1% in favor of criminalization, compared to 8.4% of adults who do not have children. In addition, a little over double the percentage of parents support the illegality of cannabis but with impunity (7.0%) compared to those without (3.3%).

 

Overall

In total, 84.1% of Germans support the legalization of cannabis to some extent with a close margin at 42.1% supporting the legalization, taxation, and regulation for recreational use whereas 42.0% support legalization for medical purposes. On the other hand, 9% of respondents believe cannabis should be illegal, along with 4.1% of respondents who believe it should be illegal with impunity.

Click here to download all statistics and numbers conducted in this survey.

 

Methodology

This survey was conducted via Civey, a third-party opinion polling platform using machine learning technology. An online poll network of more than 25,000 web pages (URLs) through Civey Riversampling is used to gain user opinion around the clock. Civey relies on non-probability samples and has developed a process that compensates for possible distortions. The survey responses were verified to check if the user is a genuine person, provides sufficient information, and measures the possibility to which their response is truthful. A quoted sample will be drawn based on variables such as age, sex, voting intent in the German federal election, time of voting and place of voting, to ensure that a minimum number of respondents from each population group has been taken into account. Finally, the votes in the sample are reweighted according to other socio-demographics, such as age, gender, marital status, population density, purchasing power and party preference, to correct any remaining bias. Data is finally weighted based on official population data sourced from the Federal Statistical Office or the Federal Returning Officer.

For more information on the full methodology, please visit the following link: https://civey.com/pro/unsere-methode

*The figure for the potential of the European cannabis industry in 2028 is sourced from the European Cannabis Report (4th Edition) produced by Prohibition Partners and Aphria Inc.

 

Detailed chart of the answers on state basis:

 

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