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Glossary

  • This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'. Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty).
  • The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.
  • The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:Buccal (via the oral mucosa), inhalative (via the lungs), oral / peroral (via the mouth), sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue), topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect), transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)
  • In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action. A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.
  • A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect - at this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).
  • Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.
  • Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.
  • In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.
  • Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint". In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3". A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing. If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas. The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.
  • Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA. CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.
  • Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant. For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.
  • The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.
  • A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.
  • The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures. A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss"). Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.
  • Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent. Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.
  • Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.
  • CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.
  • Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.
  • In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes. The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.
  • In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product. The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.
  • MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.
  • The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all). Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene. Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).
  • In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests. Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.
  • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.
  • This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.
  • A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.
  • Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect. The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.
  • A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients. Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available. With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
  • As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.
#survey

CBD survey: what we actually know about CBD!

05/02/2020 7 MIN. READ Katharina Schweigert
05/02/2020 7 MIN. READ Katharina Schweigert

Here at VAAY, we’re confident in our products. However, we’re still reminded almost daily of how much pioneer work still lies ahead of us and the whole CBD industry. Many people are still clinging to misconceptions and false assumptions, as shown by our analysis of the latest CIVEY survey regarding CBD.

This is so far the largest study conducted in Germany. Two test groups were polled: on the one hand the CBD-users, who already had experience with products, and on the other hand the so-called CBD-aware, who had encountered the topic before but had yet to test CBD products themselves.

At first glance, it’s exciting to see how many Germans have heard of CBD before, and how many have already consumed CBD products. It’s also clear, however, that the majority of the German population (46.7%) have never heard of CBD (cannabidiol). The second largest group, at 44.6%, has heard of CBD before but never consumed it. The smallest group, at 8.7% of Germans, is the experienced CBD consumers. In the global sense, Germany is behind. In our neighboring country Austria, CBD-users make up 29% of the population, in Switzerland 24%, and in the USA and Great Britain 21%.

At a glance! Our themes for you:

  1. How well do CBD users know their CBD products?
  2. What do CBD users especially look out for when buying CBD products?
  3. What holds a CBD-aware person back from using CBD products?
  4. Could they imagine using a CBD product if you found a good product range?
  5. Where could they imagine yourself buying a CBD product?
  6. Does the state need to provide a better framework and more clarity?
  7. For what purpose and at which time of day are CBD products used?
  8. How do active CBD users rate their CBD experience?
  9. Bottom line: CBD is a word on everyone’s tongue, but unfortunately often with false information and assumptions!

1. How well do CBD users know their CBD products?

Whether we go for a CBD bath bomb, diffuser pen, or oil depends on several factors: the CBD effect, the scope of application, the ingredients, the packaging or brand. Hence the difficulty in filtering out which products which products are actually of high quality. The important question here is, how well do CBD users actually know their products? In our survey, we asked CBD-users what quantities of CBD they consume. The largest group (43.2%) indicates that they don’t know in which quantity they’re consuming CBD.

39.3% are fairly certain of what amount of CBD they need to consume, whereas 6-11% state that they only occasionally or rarely know how much CBD they’re taking. These results alone are alarming, and show us how important our clarification work here is.

Almost everyone can recite what quantity of aspirin they take, but it seems that CBD users pay little mind to how much CBD they’re consuming. This most likely stems from the lack of information out there, and the dubious online offers from which they buy their CBD. You know better: we disclose the exact ingredients for you on each of our products. We know how important it is to know how much and what kind of CBD you’re taking. The better you know your CBD tools, the more you can reap their benefits!

VAAY All CBD and hemp products

2. What do CBD users especially look out for when buying CBD products?

Now for a particularly interesting question. The participants were asked what they personally find most important when shopping for CBD products. Almost 30% indicated amount and strength. A bit over 22% value most the naturality of the product, and almost 20% primarily look for an organic certification. Around 9% were most concerned with origin, price, or other factors. 2.1% said they look out for the terpene profile. That’s another interesting result because although terpenes are one of the most important active ingredients of CBD products, unfortunately very few people know this. Learn more about CBD and terpenes in our hemp-wiki.

3. What holds a CBD-aware person back from using CBD products?

Considering the benefits of CBD, the significant question arises: why are so many CBD-aware people deciding not to test out CBD for themselves? The most frequent answer amongst CBD-aware people surveyed is that they do not feel they need it (33.8%), followed closely by a statement that they have nothing against CBD consumption itself. A bit less than one third of participants say that they could by all means see themselves trying out CBD (29%). 15% of participants admit that they fear potential health risks. In the lower 10th percentile, participants cite skepticism about whether CBD’s effectiveness, a lack of knowledge about purchasing CBD, or uncertainty about the origin of the CBD product.

Hear, people’s ears especially prick up at percentages regarding health risks or potential memory loss. Some pioneering work is still needed to dispel these misconceptions. If you’re a CBD-user yourself, you may have experienced this before: telling friends or family about your positive experience with CBD and inevitably being interrupted with a load of false information or assumptions. Try as you might to unpack these arguments with science, a few listeners will remain unconvinced. Two opinions, who’s right?

4. Could they imagine using a CBD product if they found a good product range?

The CBD-aware group were asked whether they’d consider consuming CBD if availability was significantly better. 33% answered “yes, definitely,” a bit over 16% answered “most likely yes,” 13% remained undecided, and 21% decided “most likely no.” A large group of 27.5% answered “definitely not.”

The question was extended, because we wanted to know in what contexts the participants could imagine themselves using cannabidiols. The most popular answer was healing ointments at 44%, followed closely by massage oils and vaporisers. Other areas mentioned were dietary supplements, food, drinks, toiletries and cosmetics. Very important! The second most popular answer was “in none of these fields.”

For comparison, the CBD-user group indicates that they could see themselves using CBD via vaporiser (28.2%), cosmetics (19.9%), or toiletries (17%).

The numbers also show that one third of all participants view CBD use positively, but aren’t sure where they would get their CBD products or in which context or area a CBD product would make the most sense in their lives. What’s also interesting is the high percentage of interest in healing ointments.

5. Where could they imagine buying a CBD product?

When asked where they were most likely to buy the above CBD products, almost 44% of the CBD-aware responded that they’d expect the products in traditional pharmacies. Around 10-12% chose online shops, alternative shops, or CBD specialist shops. Supermarkets and online intermediaries were the least popular choices. Here another complication arises: many customers only trust classic pharmacies when it comes to buying health products.

Let’s take a look at the CBD-users. Where do they want to purchase their CBD? Here, pharmacies take first place again, with 25.4%. The difference between the CBD-aware and the CBD-users is revealed in the online shopping sector. More than 20% of CBD-users say they’d go through with an online purchase. In comparison, 12% of the CBD-aware voted to buy “online directly from the manufacturer” and 6% chose “online from a distributor.”

This result needs to be regarded separately. We must consider the role that participants’ past online CBD shopping experiences play in their choices today, and how these experiences are reflected in the survey responses.

6. Does the state need to provide a better framework and more clarity?

Similar to the results of the question about THC legalization in Germany, our question about whether the state should establish a better framework for the sale of CBD products painted a clear picture. Over 40% of the CBD-aware group approve of such a measure, 21.1% are undecided and almost 18% say “most likely yes.” 9% of the participants vote “no,” and 11.7% vote “absolutely not.”

7. For what purpose and at which time of day are CBD products used?

Relaxation, pain relief or an overall sense of well-being? Pain relief takes first place! 47.6% of polled CBD-users, and thus the majority, take CBD to alleviate pain. Second and third place were won by the wellness and relaxation sectors, respectively. 31% of participants prioritize better sleep, and 20% use CBD against inflammation. 6% indicate that they turn to CBD for improved concentration, and another 8.5% use it for muscle relaxation after exercise. 14.5% of participants indicate that they use CBD for some purpose aside from those stated.

Regarding the time of day at which they consume their CBD, 50% of CBD-users indicate the evening. Almost 22% spread their CBD consumption out evenly throughout the day, and nearly 15% choose to take it in the morning. The smallest group, at 4%, indicates midday. Another 10.8% consume CBD during the night. For those night owls among us, we’ve developed a CBD oil enriched by melatonin to support your sleep. Learn more here about the VAAY Night Melatonin Spray with Hemp Extract.

VAAX NIGHT Melatonin Spray

8. How do active CBD users rate their CBD experience?

In a survey for CBD-users about their general CBD experiences, 40% reported “positive” and 33% “very positive” experiences. Around 20% were undecided, and only 7.6% indicate rather negative or very negative experiences. Compared to classic medications and their side effects, these values demonstrate the advantages of CBD. However, this is only seen from a statistical perspective.

When asked whether they would use CBD again, 59.1% of users answered “yes, definitely” and 16.8% answered “yes.” Only 10.3% of users remained undecided, and 15% indicated “most likely not” or “definitely not.”

9. Bottom line: CBD is a word on everyone’s tongue, but unfortunately often with false information and assumptions!

All this can be summed up as follows: many of those who were polled in the CBD-aware group still hold misconceptions about CBD and its potential uses. This is also in regards to side effects and risks. The CBD-users, who already have positive experiences using CBD products, see everything very differently. In Germany a good bit of pioneer work is still needed to rid the CBD-aware group of their false impressions.

For us, this means keeping our eye on the ball. We’re not only providing you with the best possible CBD products––products which we ourselves are confident in. We also want to take part in pioneer work to bring CBD out of the shadows. We believe in the positive purposes of our products and of CBD in general. If you’ve read our guide all the way through, that’s already a victory. Because you’re now better informed than the CBD-aware group from the survey and won’t let yourself be deceived and confused by dubious sources. You’ll trust the expert info. We’re your CBD experts and soon-to-be first stop for informing yourself about CBD. Take a look at our guide to terpenes & co., so that you know what we mean by “CBD experts”!

VAAY All CBD and hemp products

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