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Glossary

  • This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'. Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty).
  • The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.
  • The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:Buccal (via the oral mucosa), inhalative (via the lungs), oral / peroral (via the mouth), sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue), topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect), transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)
  • In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action. A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.
  • A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect - at this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).
  • Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.
  • Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.
  • In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.
  • Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint". In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3". A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing. If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas. The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.
  • Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA. CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.
  • Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant. For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.
  • The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.
  • A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.
  • The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures. A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss"). Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.
  • Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent. Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.
  • Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.
  • CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.
  • Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.
  • In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes. The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.
  • In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product. The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.
  • MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.
  • The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all). Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene. Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).
  • In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests. Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.
  • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.
  • This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.
  • A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.
  • Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect. The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.
  • A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients. Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available. With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
  • As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.
#Science

Liposomal technology and CBD

21/04/2020 7 MIN. READ Tim Dresemann
21/04/2020 7 MIN. READ Tim Dresemann

Cannabis is currently experiencing an unparalleled renaissance in medicine. And even if the traditional use in the form of flowers still has its place - due to scientific findings and modern technologies, the millennia-old medicinal plant is currently receiving one or two upgrades, especially with regard to its forms of application.

No matter what these developments are aimed at: Bioavailability, duration of action, time to onset of action, avoidance of undesired effects or safe and simple dosage - the goal is logically always optimization. Often, technologies are used that have long been part of the standard repertoire in the manufacture of other products. This also applies to so-called liposomal technology or "liposome-based technology".

Liposome technique: Why the effort?

But before we dive into this fascinating topic: Why even bother? What problems does the application of liposomal technology solve in relation to cannabis-based drugs?

One problem with conventional CBD use is the rather meager bioavailability. Bioavailability is a term from pharmacology and describes the proportion of an ingested substance or active ingredient that reaches the bloodstream unchanged and can thus reach its destination.

You only understand railroad station and would like to get into the topic earlier? No problem: What CBD is all about, you can read here for example. And in case you are wondering, no - CBD does not make you high! For the notorious intoxication another cannabinoid is responsible: THC. Find out more about this in our hemp-wiki article CBD vs. THC.

Poor bioavailability: What is the cause?

Due to the poor water solubility of CBD, it is assumed that it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract relatively slowly and irregularly. Thus, the "fate" or rather the dynamics of CBD in the organism (i.e. pharmacokinetics) is subject to strong fluctuations and therefore rather suboptimal in this context.

The bioavailability for CBD is estimated to be only 6% after oral administration according to the WHO. Although inhalation intake, i.e. by vaporization or smoking, is significantly more effective, smoking cannot be recommended under any circumstances from a medical point of view. Vaporization is also viewed critically by some medical professionals; the lung, so one argument, is there for breathing - not for taking medication (the asthmatic who wishes to protest at this point can be assured that he is the legitimate exception in this case).

In addition, on its way to the site of action (just like other cannabinoids) CBD first passes from the stomach to the liver, where it is extensively metabolized or "converted". In this context one speaks of the "first-pass effect". In fact, it is actually the case that - pharmacologically speaking - it is not the CBD that develops its effect in the organism, but 7-OH-CBD, a metabolite of the CBD.

The time until the onset of action is a further factor, the optimization of which occupies many researchers and also industry. In addition to the above-mentioned "first-pass effect", passage through the stomach and liver simply requires a certain amount of time. If the maximum effect after inhalation (i.e. vaporization or smoking) occurs after only a few minutes, it can take up to 90 minutes after oral absorption.

So there is still room for improvement in the optimization of cannabis-based drugs and their dosage forms. At first glance, however, there are limits to this because of the basic substance properties of cannabinoids such as CBD. They are not water soluble and that would be the end of this story. Actually! Because this is exactly where liposomal technology comes into play, or as it is called in technical jargon, "Liposomal Drug Delivery Systems".

What are liposomes?

Stellt sich also die Frage: Was sind Liposomen überhaupt und wie können sie dabei helfen, die eingangs beschriebenen Probleme – zumindest teilweise – zu beheben?

Vereinfacht kann man sich den Aufbau eines Liposoms wie ein (sehr kleines) Seifenbläschen vorstellen, das sich in einer wässrigen Lösung befindet. Im Innern dieses Bläschen befindet sich ebenfalls eine wässrige Phase. Die Hülle eines Liposoms besteht aus einer Doppelschicht von Phospholipiden.

Liposomale Technologie


Phospholipids have special biophysical properties: they consist of 2 parts - a water-loving (and fat-avoiding) "head" and a fat-loving (and water-avoiding) "tail". When several of these molecules are dispersed, i.e. distributed, in an aqueous medium, they form lamellar layers: The polar head group points into the aqueous area, while the fatty acid groups are opposite and point towards each other. This is how a spherical, bubble-like structure is formed - a liposome.

A liposome is thus basically an aqueous compartment surrounded by a bilayer (a membrane) consisting of (at least) 2 layers of phospholipids.

By the way: If you now think that this sounds somehow familiar to you, you are probably right, because phospholipids are a popular topic in bio-lessons as the main component of biomembranes.

Advantages of the liposomal formulation

Well, but how exactly do manufacturers of vitamins, dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals and of course CBD take advantage of the special properties of liposomes?

In the liposomal formulation of drugs (and also of e.g. vitamin C, etc.) the substances concerned are either placed inside the liposome, i.e. in the aqueous compartment (applies to water-soluble substances), or in the membrane itself (applies to fat-soluble substances, such as cannabinoids).

Let us remember: Cannabinoids, including CBD and THC, are difficult to dissolve in water, but are fat-soluble. In liposomal formulations, this group of substances is thus enclosed inside the double lipid membrane and thus protected from unwanted metabolism. On the one hand, the plasma half-life of a drug can be extended by protecting the liposome, i.e. the time that this substance remains in the patient's blood plasma and can thus also develop its effect.

The liposomes loaded with CBD are transported to the site of action after ingestion (e.g. in the form of capsules or as drops). Here the double lipid layer of the liposomes fuses with the membrane of the receiving cell. In this way, the charge is quasi transported into the cell interior. The liposomal release of the active ingredient takes place in 4 steps:

Step 1

Docking (adsorption) of the liposome to the cell membrane

Step 2

The internalization ("swallowing") of the liposome by the cell by invagination of the cell membrane (= endocytosis)

Step 3

The fusion of liposome and cell membrane and thus release of liposomal content into the cytoplasm, i.e. into the interior of the cell

Step 4

Lipid Exchange

Excursus: lipid exchange

In short, if a defined quantity of certain substances, including CBDs, is administered as a liposomal formulation, it can be assumed that the effect is much more efficient than if the same quantity of the substance had been administered "conventionally", i.e. without using liposomal technology. Efficiency and therapeutic breadth of the active substances are increased.

But beware: Even if you stumble upon such statements on the Internet again and again - the fact that you can formulate CBD in this way does not mean that the result is a water-soluble CBD!

Water-soluble CBD does not exist. Liposomally formulated CBD could at best be described as "water-compatible". But even with this, a lot has already been gained.

Liposomal formulation of cannabinoids

For this purpose, an emulsion is first produced from phospholipids and water. Now energy is added, e.g. in the form of ultrasound, as mechanical energy (shaking) or heat. In order to achieve a thermodynamic equilibrium, spherical vesicles - liposomes - are formed, which are surrounded by a double membrane.

Depending on size, number of membrane layers, composition and manufacturing methods there are different classes of liposomes, which are named accordingly, e.g. LUV's and SUV's ("Large" or "Small Unilamellar Vesicles").

Challenges in the production of liposomal CBD formulations

A critical property of liposomes is their stability. A good stability of several months up to several years is mandatory for the trade.

The problem: over time the small vesicles tend to fuse together and thus increase in size. The stored substances can also escape from the vesicles, which can promote the above-mentioned fusion to larger structures, or lead to the destruction of the vesicle. These processes can be counteracted by specially developed steps in the manufacturing process. Right at the beginning of the manufacturing process, the size distribution of the individual vesicles and their morphology, which should be as uniform as possible, is crucial.

An important factor is the use of suitable phospholipids as starting material. The hydrophobic "tail" of a phospholipid can consist of saturated, unsaturated or a combination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The exact composition determines the fluidity of the resulting membrane and thus the stability of the liposome. The use of suitable, high-quality and as fresh as possible reagents is therefore crucial.

Other chemical and physical factors such as pH, temperature, exposure to light and the presence of oxygen also play a role in the production process. Finally, sterilization is also a challenge: high temperatures or irradiation would normally be used here.

However, liposomes react very sensitively to both and make other methods necessary. For example, membrane filters (22µm) can be used, or the entire production can be carried out under aseptic conditions.

Sounds complicated. Is it still worth it?

All this does not make the manufacturing process any easier and it requires a great deal of know-how and experience to fine-tune all sub-processes so that the result is a functional, efficient, stable and above all safe product.

That - and nothing less - is our claim at VAAY. What else you can expect from our products, you can read in our quality promise.

The increased technical effort in production is accordingly reflected in the production costs and ultimately in the product price. A certain amount of CBD, produced with liposomal technology, will generally be more expensive than the same amount of CBD offered as conventional extract in capsules.

However, increased bioavailability through liposomal formulation can cause the liposomally ingested CBD to unfold its effects more efficiently, leading to a better CBD experience for the user.

Conclusion

Cannabis as a medicine is moving back into the focus of modern research after decades of prohibitionist policies. Even if the fields of application today largely coincide with those historically handed down - in terms of dosage form, bioavailability (efficiency), speed of action and safety, a tremendous development has taken place during this time. So perhaps it is time that cannabis also gets an upgrade in these areas.

The challenges that cannabinoids pose as active ingredients are not new: many vitamins and nutrients, such as vitamin C or curcumin, the value-giving ingredient of turmeric, also have low bioavailability and are therefore increasingly offered as liposomal formulations.

The technology is therefore known, tested and can actually be applied to cannabinoids. The advantages in terms of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are numerous. Liposomal technology does not magically make CBD water-soluble - but it is "water-compatible".

Cannabis-based drugs and cannabinoids in general have thus arrived in the 21st century, so to speak, and, through the use of modern pharmaceutical technology, are on their way to securing a permanent place in our everyday lives, among other things as optimized and high-performance formulations. Just like curcumin or vitamin C.

Do you want to learn more about cannabis or hemp? Click here to go to our hemp wiki.

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