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Glossary

  • This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'. Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty).
  • The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.
  • The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:Buccal (via the oral mucosa), inhalative (via the lungs), oral / peroral (via the mouth), sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue), topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect), transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)
  • In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action. A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.
  • A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect - at this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).
  • Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.
  • Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.
  • In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.
  • Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint". In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3". A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing. If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas. The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.
  • Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA. CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.
  • Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant. For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.
  • The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.
  • A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.
  • The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures. A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss"). Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.
  • Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent. Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.
  • Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.
  • CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.
  • Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.
  • In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes. The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.
  • In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product. The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.
  • MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.
  • The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all). Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene. Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).
  • In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests. Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.
  • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.
  • This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.
  • A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.
  • Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect. The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.
  • A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients. Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available. With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
  • As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.
#CBD 101

The Complete VAAY CBD Glossary

10/08/2020 21 MIN. READ Mirko Berger
10/08/2020 21 MIN. READ Mirko Berger

In order that you don't feel lost in the constantly growing flood of information that can currently be found on the topic of CBD, we try to make the most important topics and terms available to you in this glossary in a very short form. The glossary is constantly being revised and supplemented - so we want to make sure that you will always get the latest information. For more detailed articles on this exciting topic, check out our Hemp Wiki.


CBD Glossary

420
α-Pinene
Certificate of Analysis
Application form
Biphasic effect
Bioavailability
Cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2)
Cannabis
Cannabis types
CBD (Cannabidiol)
CBDA
CBD Content
CBD-Liquids
CBD Oil
CBD-Drops
CBG - Cannabigerol
Dabbing
Dosage form
Dosage of CBD oil
Edibles
Endocannabinoids
Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
Entourage Effect
Formulation
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.; also: common hemp, true hemp)
Hemp leaf
Hemp ingredients
Hemp legalization
Hemp seed oil
Hemp seeds
Hybrid (cannabis types)
Isolate
Limonene
Liposomal Technology
MCT-Oil
Medicinal cannabis
Myrcene
Pesticides
Psychoactitivity
Sublingual
Terpenes
THC
Tincture
Topical application
Vaporizer (vaporizer, vaporizer)

420

This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'.

Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty). Read more about the store.

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α-Pinene

As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.

α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.

In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.

 

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Certificate of Analysis

The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.

Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.

In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.

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Form of administration (administration form)

The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:

  • Buccal (via the oral mucosa)
  • inhalative (via the lungs)
  • oral / peroral (via the mouth)
  • sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue)
  • topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect)
  • transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)

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Biphasic effect

A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect

Aat this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).

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Bioavailability

In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action.

A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.


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Cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2)

Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system.

A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.

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Cannabis

Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..

However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.

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Cannabis types

Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint".

In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3".

A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing.

If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas.

The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.

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CBD (Cannabidiol)

Cannabidiol, short: CBD, is the name of one of over 100 cannabinoids naturally derived from the cannabis plant. CBD does not make you "high", i.e. it is not responsible for the intoxication state associated with cannabis. In the scientific literature there are described among other things antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic and anxiety-relieving effects. In the meantime, a CBD-based drug for epilepsy has been approved in the EU/Germany.

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CBDA

Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA.

CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.

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CBD content

The CBD content, i.e. the amount or concentration of CBD contained in a product, must be mandatory for every product containing CBD. Our mouth sprays are available with 5% or 10% CBD. At 10 ml this results in a total content of 500 or 1000 mg CBD per bottle. Even if this should seem obvious - especially in this still young market, many people do not take it too seriously (as e.g. this study shows). Hence our promise: Our products contain exactly what it says on the label. No more - no less.

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CBD-Liquids

Vaporizable liquids are currently a trend not only in the USA. "Steam stores" are now part of the cityscape throughout Germany and the so-called e-cigarettes are considered a less harmful alternative to smoking. CBD liquids contain, as the name suggests, CBD.

Furthermore, the composition of the liquids can vary greatly from manufacturer to manufacturer or product to product. The use of unsuitable ingredients (for cost reasons!), e.g. vitamin E acetate, had caused the recent vaping crisis in the USA last year. In our liquids we therefore use only high-quality and safe ingredients, such as coconut oil. Nicotine has lost just as little here as other additives, some of which are very harmful to health.

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CBD Oil

CBD oil is usually used as a collective term for all oil-based products containing CBD. The use of oil as a carrier makes sense, because CBD, like THC and other cannabinoids, are poorly soluble in water, but more so in fat.

When CBD is used as a drug, it is called an "oily cannabidiol solution". CBD oil is also offered for cosmetic use and as a food supplement. Terms like "hemp oil" and "hemp seed oil" refer to the oil extracted from the hemp seeds. Neither seeds nor the oil extracted from them contain cannabinoids.

CBD oil can, but does not have to contain hemp or hemp seed oil. The oil, no matter which one is used, is in this case only the carrier substance. It is CBD oil only if it also contains CBD. Our products contain only the CBD naturally contained in hemp extract; we do not use added CBD isolate.

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CBD Drops

CBD oil often comes in small bottles (e.g. 10 or 30 ml) with an integrated pipette. Therefore, the term "CBD drops" in most cases means nothing else than CBD oil taken with a pipette. Although the oil can be dosed well, the bottles have the annoying habit of appearing slightly oily from the outside after a short time due to the fact that they are constantly being screwed on and off.

In addition, some people find it somewhat indiscreet to drip a liquid from a pipette into their mouth in public. Our oil therefore comes to your home in practical spray bottles that are just as easy and safe to dose.

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CBG - Cannabigerol

Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant.

For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.

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Dabbing

The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.

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Dosage form

A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.

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Dosage of CBD oil

In order to determine the appropriate CBD dose, it is first of all decisive whether the CBD is used for medical purposes under medical supervision or whether it is taken in a self-determined non-medical manner.

In medical application CBD is usually dosed much higher than in self-determined intake. In any case, the top priority is to minimize possible side effects, even if they are mild and temporary in CBD, if they occur at all. For this reason, our dosage recommendations are based on a daily dose of up to 20 mg CBD per day. With our 5% oral spray you can reach this dose with 4 pump strokes daily - with the 10% version half is enough. However, this value can only be taken as a rough guide. The desired effect can already occur at lower doses, or it can even fail to occur at 20 mg per day. This is where the willingness to experiment is required.

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Edibles

The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures.

A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.

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Endocannabinoide

Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss").

Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.

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Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The ECS is an ancient signalling system and can be found in all known mammals. It is involved in many different physiological processes of the organism and plays a central regulatory role. The regulation takes place via a modulation of messenger substances (neurotransmitters) against the direction of the signal, which is transmitted by the messenger substances (retrograde).

Imagine you step on something pointed. This hurts, which means nothing else but that your body sends pain signals to your brain, which should tell you in this situation: "Attention, tissue damage is imminent! So far, a useful thing. However, there are situations where maintaining such a stimulus (especially in its initial intensity) is not very helpful.

This can be the case, for example, with neuropathic pain, i.e. pain that does not signal imminent tissue damage but is caused by damage to the pain-conducting fibers themselves. Here it makes sense to have a mechanism that allows the stimulus conduction to be "screwed down" - and this is where ECS comes in.

Cannabinoids (whether endogenous or externally supplied) dock at the synapse that transmits the pain to the next synapse, thereby causing it to throttle the release of the corresponding messenger substances and thus the transmission to the next synapse.

However, pain conduction is only one example of many that the ECS can influence in this way; in a paper published in 1998, one of the leading researchers in the field of cannabinoid research summarized the functions of the endocannabinoid system as follows: "relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect". Considering how many processes of daily life these handful of catchwords involve, it will quickly become clear why cannabinoids are currently (again) enjoying such great attention.

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Entourage effect

Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent.

Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.

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Formulation

Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.

Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.; also: common hemp, true hemp)

Hemp is one of the oldest known cultivated plants with a history of use of over 10,000 years. It can be used in many different ways, e.g. as food, as a supplier of fibers and fuels, for the extraction of valuable medicinal substances, as well as for intoxication purposes.

In today's linguistic usage, however, hemp is usually used to refer to hemp for food or fibre, which does not have an intoxicating effect. This may also be cultivated in Germany if the THC content of its flowers does not exceed 0.2%. Meanwhile, there are varieties that have been optimized by breeding, e.g. for particularly long stems for fiber production or particularly large seeds for oil extraction, as well as varieties where the breeding goal was a particularly high CBD content.

Even though fibre hemp varieties are classically very long growing, in contrast to varieties grown for intoxication purposes, THC-free and THC-rich varieties cannot be distinguished optically.

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Hemp leaf

Hemp leaves are usually hand or finger shaped, with serrated leaves. Depending on the growth phase, the leaves have between one and eleven fingers.

Today, the iconic hemp leaf stands for much more than just the plant itself; it has become the symbol of cannabis culture. Until a few years ago, and in some places still today, this was mainly a counterculture and accordingly the hemp leaf is still seen by many as a symbol of such a culture.

With the gradual liberalization and a more enlightened handling of the topic cannabis, the cannabis leaf could be rehabilitated to a certain extent and so it appears today, among other things in the medical context, more and more often in places that have nothing to do with counterculture.

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Hemp ingredients

The best known representatives of this substance group are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). But there are also more than 100 other cannabinoids. Currently, for example, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are being researched.

Further substance groups of pharmacological interest are terpenoids and flavonoids. Especially terpenoids are said to have a synergistic effect in combination with cannabinoids (entourage effect).

Terpenoids frequently found in cannabis are e.g. myrcene, limonene and caryophyllenes. Flavonoids, especially the potentially strong anti-inflammatory properties of the so-called cannflavins are currently being investigated.

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Hemp legalization

Large parts of the population now want a legalization of hemp, i.e. cannabis. This usually means mainly THC-containing cannabis products. "Legalization" in the debate usually stands for a general relaxation of the currently still continuing prohibition policy.

However, the way in which such a relaxation takes place can take different forms. The first step on the way to complete legalization could be decriminalization. THC-rich cannabis would not yet be legal, but the possession and use (of certain quantities) would no longer be prosecuted.

The use of THC-rich cannabis would no longer be stigmatized and prosecuted as a morally reprehensible crime, and freed-up funds could, for example, relieve the health and legal system or be invested in social projects.

A "real" legalization, on the other hand, would remove all penalties for possession and personal use. This does not mean, however, that THC-rich cannabis will always be freely available for everyone afterwards - on the contrary: A legalization would offer the possibility to intervene by the state, as is the case with alcohol and tobacco.

No matter which model seems to make more sense here - the fact that the current prohibition policy not only fails but is simply counterproductive has meanwhile even been confirmed by the scientific service of the Bundestag in a "state of affairs".

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Hemp oil

Mit Hanföl ist in der Regel das Öl gemeint, das aus den Samen der Hanfpflanze gewonnen wird. Hanföl, auch: Hanfsamenöl, ist ein wertvolles Speiseöl. Es enthält alle (!) essenziellen, also für den Menschen wichtigen, Fettsäuren, eignet sich jedoch nicht gut zum Braten.

Hemp oil is also used in the cosmetics industry, in medicine, as a technical oil, feed additive in agriculture and even as biofuel. The seeds of the hemp plant contain practically no cannabinoids, so the term hemp oil is in any case sharply distinguishable from oily hemp products and also from CBD oil, which is mostly based on the essential oils of hemp, which are mainly extracted from the flowers, not the seeds (for example hash oil, or oily cannabis extracts).

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Hemp seeds

If a female hemp plant is pollinated, it produces large quantities of approx. 3.5 mm large, brownish to green-grey, roundish seeds, whose shell is often marbled.

Hemp seeds contain practically no cannabinoids or other psychoactive components, but do contain a lot of valuable ingredients, such as vitamins, easily digestible protein, essential amino acids and a high proportion of valuable omega-3 fatty acids.

For the use of the seeds, usually low THC cannabis varieties are cultivated. If hemp is to be cultivated for intoxication purposes, seed production is explicitly undesirable, since seeds in the flower, which are used for intoxication purposes in dried or processed form, are considered as impurities and must be removed.

In contrast to the field cultivation of hemp, where female and male plants are grown together, the yield of cannabinoids can be maximized by growing female plants only.

Since they are not pollinated in this way, they produce larger quantities of the valuable flowers. The absence of seeds, which is considered a quality characteristic in this sense, has also given rise to the term "sinsemilla" (from the Spanish sin "without" and semilla "seed").

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Hybrid (cannabis types)

In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.

In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.

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Isolate

CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.

On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.

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Limonene

Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.

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Liposomal formulation

(Geto to the article: formulation)

In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes.

The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.

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Medicinal cannabis

In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product.

The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.

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MCT Oil

MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals .In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.

Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.

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Myrcene

The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all).

Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene.

Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).

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Psychoactivity

Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).

Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.

The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.

As far as cannabis is concerned, THC can clearly be described as psychoactive, while opinions differ to some extent on CBD: The effect of CBD on the psyche is so subtle and "mild" that it is often (falsely) described as non-psychoactive. Some of the terpenes found in cannabis have also been described as having an effect on the psyche: for example, lime is considered refreshing and relaxing - strictly speaking, this substance could perhaps also be described as psychoactive / psychotropic.

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Pesticides

In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests.

Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.

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Sublingual

This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.

Terpenes

Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.

Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.

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THC

THC, Tetrahydrocannabinol, or chemically correct: (-)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (= dronabinol), is one of over 100 cannabinoids extracted from the cannabis plant (hemp).

THC is considered to be mainly responsible for the psychoactive aspects of cannabis effects. THC was isolated and described for the first time by the research group around the Israeli researcher Raphael Mechoulam, who is now revered as a living legend by large parts of the cannabis scene.

In Germany, THC is still classified as a narcotic and regulated accordingly in the Narcotics Law. In the plant the substance is present as a non-psychoactive acid: THCA.

THC is obtained by splitting off the acid group (decarboxylation), e.g. through the influence of heat. The concentration of THC is particularly high in the resin of the plant, which is released by so-called trichomes, which mainly cover the inflorescences. The resin can be extracted and pressed by sieving the inflorescences - one speaks then of hash or hashish.

While trichomes may still be present on leaves close to the flowers, the characteristically fingered and serrated leaves known as "awnings", as well as stems, seeds and roots are practically THC-free.

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Tincture

A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.

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Topical application

Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect.

The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.

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Vaporizer (vaporizer, vaporizer)

A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients.

Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available.

With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.

With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, usually vegetable, material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.

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... to be continued!
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