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Glossary

  • This numerical code was created from an event that sounds like a modern fairy tale. Originally, it meant a time: 20 past four in the afternoon. Or, in the English notation 4:20 (pm) - short: 420 or just: 'four twenty'. Nowadays this number is an international and frequently used "code" and can stand for all kinds of things: for cannabis itself, for the use of cannabis, or for the festivities (like Christmas for cannabis friends) that are celebrated on April 20th (English date spelling 4/20 - four twenty).
  • The certificate of analysis provides information about whether the analysed batch of a product meets the requirements or specifications applicable to that product. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is a common document for drugs, but also for their starting materials.Above all, the certificate provides information about essential quality characteristics (such as the content of CBD or other valuable ingredients) as well as permissible and impermissible impurities.In our laboratory analyses you will find information on the content of cannabinoids, among other things. This way you can be sure that you get what you expect from the product (e.g. CBD) and that there is nothing in it that you need to worry about (e.g. THC). Of course we always check for impurities, e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. Current laboratory analyses of our products can be viewed here.
  • The form of administration or administration form describes the way in which a certain substance, usually a drug, is administered or used. For cannabinoids, the following forms of administration are particularly suitable:Buccal (via the oral mucosa), inhalative (via the lungs), oral / peroral (via the mouth), sublingual (via the mucosa under the tongue), topical (usually on the skin; application is localized to produce a localized effect), transdermal (absorption via the skin, the effect is felt in the body)
  • In pharmacology, the bioavailability of an active ingredient is an important measure. It describes the proportion of the substance that passes into the bloodstream (more precisely: into the systemic circulation) and is thus available at the site of action. A 100% bioavailability is achieved by intravenous administration of a substance. If the active substance is administered to the organism by other means, e.g. orally, it is compared with the bioavailability after intravenous administration, and on this basis a percentage is given. Thus, an oral bioavailability of 50% means that, compared to intravenous administration, half of the active substance enters the systemic circulation.
  • A biphasic effect is the effect of an active ingredient when low and high doses of the same active ingredient can cause opposite effects. Alcohol also has such an effect: while small quantities of alcohol can have a stimulating effect, larger quantities of alcohol have a calming to sedating effect. CBD has shown such a profile as an active ingredient in several studies: While e.g. a dose of 300mg CBD had a calming effect on the participants, a significantly higher dose of 900mg CBD not only did not show a calming effect - at this very high dosage the test persons even reported an opposite effect; they not only felt more stressed than test persons who received the lower CBD dose, but also than those who received only a placebo (i.e. no active ingredient).
  • Cannabinoid receptors are, besides cannabinoids themselves and the enzymes responsible for their degradation, important components of our endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes through the central regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. A cannabinoid researcher summarized these processes as follows: "Relax, Eat, Sleep, Forget and Protect" - hardly any area of our life is not affected in one way or another. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabinoids can also unfold their effects via other pathways. Based on the results of a study, for example, it was suggested to include the receptor "GPR55" in the class of cannabinoid receptors.
  • Cannabis originally refers to the hemp plant - whose full Latin name is Cannabis sativa L..However, in common parlance "cannabis" is also often used to refer to the dried female flower. Dried female flowers are one of the possible end products that can be made from the cannabis plant, some of which are also used for intoxication purposes. Since the medical use of cannabis is back to normal in Germany, the word "medical cannabis" is often used in this context to distinguish it from "normal" cannabis, which is often not used on medical prescription and is obtained from unofficial sources.
  • In plant breeding, hybrid usually refers to offspring resulting from the combination (crossing) of the characteristics of two plants from different, preferably pure-bred (inbred) lines. The offspring of such a breeding, the F1 generation, then combines in the best case all positive traits of both the mother and the father line. One speaks then of heterosis, or the heterosis effect.In cannabis, hybrid is also used to make it clear that a particular cultivar can clearly be assigned neither to the Sativa nor the Indica spectrum. Whether and to what extent all these categorizations (hybrid, indica, sativa) are scientifically tenable is still the subject of lively discussion. The background is that due to the extremely long history of cannabis use (10.000+ years!) original populations, so-called landraces, no longer exist, since genetic material from other geographical zones and/or populations has been crossed in by humans - whether intended or not. Therefore, some argue, all varieties (or cultivars) that exist today should strictly speaking be called hybrids.
  • Cannabis sativa L., i.e. hemp or simply cannabis stands for a plant species within the cannabis family (Cannabaceae). Within this species different varieties (better: cultivars) can be distinguished from each other. They differ not only in their growth form (the so-called morphotype), but also in their own specific profile of cannabinoids and terpenes -- the chemotype. The profile of a variety is as individual as a "chemical fingerprint". In practice, this means that not all cannabis is the same. Different varieties can be grouped in different ways; one of the more common divisions is based on the content of the two "main" cannabinoids THC and CBD. "Type 1" describes THC-dominant strains, "Type 2" refers to strains with a balanced ratio of THC to CBD and CBD-dominant strains are referred to as "Type 3". A still common, but scientifically rather controversial way of classifying different cannabis varieties is the division into "sativa" (or sativa-branched / sativa-dominant), indica (or indica-branched / indica-dominant) and hybrids. The effect of "Sativas" is often described by users as mentally activating, stimulating and also more psychoactive, whereas that of "Indicas" is more physical, calming and relaxing. If one imagines Indica and Sativa as the ends of a spectrum of possible effects, the so-called hybrids lie somewhere in the middle, thus offering the user a mixture of the above mentioned essential characteristics of Indicas and Sativas. The reason for the sometimes very differently perceived effects of different varieties is only partly due to the different contents of cannabinoids -- especially the terpenes are said to have a great influence on the subjective perception of effects.
  • Cannabidiolic acid (A for acid) is one of the many ingredients of cannabis. Although the non-acidic form, CBD, is much better known, the plant itself produces almost exclusively the acid form, CBDA. CBDA is also said to have potentially desirable effects, some of which are even said to be more potent than those of CBD itself. However, research on this is still in its infancy.
  • Cannabigerol, or CBG for short, is one of over 100 known cannabinoids found in the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). However, CBG is something special because the starting molecule produced in the plant, cannabigerol acid, is also the basic building block from which all other cannabinoids are produced in the plant. For cannabigerol itself, antibiotic effects against multi-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) have been observed - at least in mice.
  • The vaporization of cannabis concentrates is called dabbing. Concentrates are usually in the form of waxes or resinous oils. These are applied to a piece of metal ("nail") that has been heated to a high temperature, where they immediately begin to vaporize. The vapors are inhaled through a kind of bong (water pipe). In this way it is possible to inhale very large quantities of cannabinoids in a very short time. From a medical and/or health point of view, however, this type of application cannot be recommended.
  • A ready-to-use form or preparation that can be taken without modification is also called a dosage form. On the other hand, this term can also refer to the form of a medicinal product (dosage form), which then also includes the type of application. The dosage form does not always have to correspond to the final preparation.
  • The term edible in the context of cannabis means edible food to which cannabinoids have been added. Mostly THC is meant. Well-known examples are so-called space cakes, i.e. cakes containing cannabis, or cannabis butter ('cannabutter'). Among recent developments in this area, especially wine gums containing cannabinoids are very popular. Edibles" can also mean liquid, i.e. drinkable, cannabinoid containing food, capsules and partly also oils and tinctures. A special feature of Edibles is that although it takes longer to take effect than when cannabinoids are inhaled, the effect lasts much longer. You can find out more about this in our article on the topic of onset of action and duration of action.
  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself. Cannabinoids are part of the endocannabinoid system. Endocannabinoids include 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonylethanolamide (AEA). AEA is often also called anandamide, derived from the Sanskrit word ananda ("bliss"). Just like the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids), the body's own cannabinoids are able to dock to corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) that are distributed throughout the human body to exert their effect.
  • Through the special interaction of cannabinoids and terpenes, a special plant synergy can be created, the so-called "entourage effect". Terpenes can influence the effect of the cannabinoids in different ways (and vice versa). This also shows a potential advantage of full-spectrum extracts over extracts or oils that contain only CBD in pure form. The latter lack potential synergy partners; the entourage effect is absent. Even if this is slowly changing at present - terpenes are still considered a "neglected pharmacological treasure chest" in cannabis research, as the "discoverer" of THC, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, put it, because of their enormous potential with regard to individualized therapy design with cannabis flowers and/or full spectrum extracts.
  • Many substances are not used in their pure form, but in a mixture which, in addition to the main component, also consists of other substances, so-called auxiliary substances. The finished mixture is then called a formulation.Excipients can e.g. facilitate the application through formative properties, make the production more efficient or, as in the case of the liposomal formulation of our hemp capsules, improve the bioavailability.
  • CBD-Isolate is a crystalline solid or powder consisting of almost pure CBD. Just like (full spectrum) extracts, isolate can be obtained from hemp plants containing CBD. During extraction and subsequent purification, all non-CBD components are almost completely removed, so that the final product contains 99% pure CBD.On the one hand, this means that synergies and potentials resulting from the presence of other valuable ingredients of the hemp plant are not utilized. On the other hand, the use of isolate can also be advantageous in certain situations, e.g. due to its flexible application and comparatively low price.
  • Limonene belong to the terpenes and are found in higher concentrations, as the name suggests, in citrus fruits and are responsible for their characteristic smell.Limonene is often used as an inexpensive fragrance, e.g. for cleaning agents, as citrus scent is associated with freshness and cleanliness. It is also used as a vegetable insecticide and in preservatives and cosmetic products.Limonene are considered to be mood-lifting, antidepressant, immunostimulant, antimicrobial and are used in skin therapy.
  • In liposomal formulation, the value-giving component of the formulation (e.g. CBD) is introduced into the interior or into the double membrane layer of so-called liposomes. The advantage of such a formulation is, among other things, that substances can be better absorbed by the body in this way, which in their natural form may be poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of e.g. CBD, i.e. the proportion of absorbed CBD that reaches the bloodstream, can be effectively increased by this.
  • In Germany, medicinal cannabis is usually referred to as cannabis, which is available in pharmacies upon presentation of a prescription. Particularly in differentiation from normal cannabis (i.e. without the addition "medicinal"), medicinal cannabis is a largely standardised herbal medicinal product. The active ingredient contents (THC and CBD) are defined in the European Pharmacopoeia and are regularly checked. Furthermore, it must be possible to prove with analyses that there are no residues of pesticides in the finished product that exceed the maximum permissible amounts. Not only the cannabis itself, but also the production facilities must meet strict requirements and these are also regularly checked. Depending on the context, medical cannabis may mean not only the dried female flowers, i.e. the "traditional" end product, but also the plant itself and other products made from it, such as extracts.
  • MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides, i.e. triglycerides (neutral fats) containing medium-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids include fatty acids with 6-12 carbon atoms. They are found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil and butter, among other things, but not in their pure form, but in a natural way in a mixture with other triglycerides. MCT oil is mainly used in the manufacture of cosmetic products, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.In general, MCT oils are considered a valuable food component in the sense of a holistically health-promoting diet.Unlike other oils, MCT oils can be metabolized independently of pancreatic enzymes, which explains their use in various (mainly metabolic) diseases. MCT fats are also particularly suitable in the context of a ketogenic diet, such as that used in some pharmacoresistant forms of epilepsy.
  • The terpene myrcene is very common in the plant kingdom. In larger concentrations it can be found in pines, ripe mangoes, fennel, juniper, ginger plants, hops and dill. And of course in hemp or cannabis. Here it is considered the main suspect for the so-called "couch-lock" effect, a state of extreme physical relaxation, in which it may seem impossible for the person affected to get off the couch (spoiler: it usually works out after all). Pharmacological interest is focused on the antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), analgesic and relaxing to sedative properties of myrcene. Fun Fact: If you always wanted to attract bark beetles without much effort, myrcene is your salvation, because for the beetle this terpene is an almost irresistible messenger (pheromone).
  • In today's terminology, pesticide means any agent that is used to protect (mostly plants) against pests. Pesticides are mainly discussed in the context of pesticide residues in products (mostly food). For pesticides authorised in the EU, there are usually maximum levels for both the amount of pesticide applied and the pesticide residues that may be present in the intermediate or final product.
  • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances are all substances that are able to influence the human psyche. The induced influence can take very different forms and also show great differences in intensity. The spectrum ranges from a barely perceptible stimulation or relaxation, e.g. by a sip of coffee in the morning, to a largely complete change of consciousness, e.g. by psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT and Co.).Whether the change is experienced as positive or negative depends on a number of different factors and not least on the user himself. Psychotropic drugs are also considered psychoactive or psychotropic substances - the term alone does not therefore say anything about the legality or illegality of a substance.The most frequently consumed psychoactive/psychotropic substance worldwide is caffeine. Caffeine belongs to the group of stimulants. Cocoa contains theobromine, a substance structurally related to caffeine, which is also a stimulant frequently consumed worldwide.
  • This refers to a form of application or administration of a substance. The substance is placed under the tongue (sub "under", lingua "tongue"). The mucous membrane under the tongue is particularly thin and well supplied with blood, which enables the rapid absorption of substances into the bloodstream.
  • Terpenes and terpenoids are very small molecules, some of which are very potent and can therefore have an effect even in extremely low doses. Terpenes occur in nature in great variety and are not only responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. The concentration of different terpenes, the so-called terpene profile, is an essential distinguishing feature of different cannabis flower varieties.Terpenes and cannabinoids can work together in a special form of plant synergy, which is then called the "entourage effect".The most common and well-known terpenes in cannabis include limonene, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, caryophyllene and humulene.
  • A tincture is an alcoholic extract. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, only ethanol in certain concentrations (usually between 20 and 60%) may be used as a solvent during extraction.
  • Topical application refers to a form of application or administration that takes place locally and is therefore intended to have a localized effect. The classic example of a topical application is an analgesic sports gel that is applied to or near a painful joint to produce its (e.g. additional warming) effect.
  • A vaporizer uses heat to enable the vaporization (vapor = vapor) of active ingredients. To prevent combustion, which produces undesirable and often toxic by-products, only enough heat is generated to vaporize the desired ingredients. Vaporizers are used, among other things, to make active ingredients (active substances) from medicinal plants available, including cannabis. Usually temperatures between 180°C and 210°C are recommended. The boiling point of THC is 157°C, that of CBD is slightly higher (160°C - 180°C). Vaporizers can make the active ingredients of the cannabis plant safely and effectively available. With vaporizers, a distinction must be made between devices for vaporizing dry, mostly plant material and devices for vaporizing so-called "liquids". The latter have become known especially in connection with nicotine as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
  • As the name suggests, at least to the botanists and latinists among you, this terpene is found in large quantities in pine plants (lat. Pinus) (including pines, firs, spruces and of course pines). But also myrtle, dill and caraway contain high concentrations of myrtle.α pines are associated with mental freshness and clarity. The Japanese custom of "forest bathing" (Shinrin yoku) makes use of this characteristic - practitioners "bathe", so to speak, in the forest air saturated with α pinenes and thus consciously make use of their clarifying effect on the mind.In addition, there are indications of antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory), bronchodilating and memory supporting effects of α-Pinenen.
#CBD 101

What is CBD? What's So Special About Cannabidiol?

21/04/2020 10 MIN. READ Alyssha Bal
21/04/2020 10 MIN. READ Alyssha Bal

There’s still a bit of confusion about what CBD oil actually is, and what it stands for. CBD stands for cannabidiol and it is one of 100 active cannabinoids in the hemp plant. Pure CBD extracted from industrial hemp does not contain Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is present in various strains of cannabis. Full spectrum CBD oil may contain trace amounts of THC, however it is not enough to produce any effects. In fact, there are no psychotropic effects when using CBD oil, which is what makes it legal. There are only around 50 hemp plants approved for producing CBD products. These have to demonstrate a THC content below 0.2 percent in order to be sold legally. Today, cannabis is used for medical purposes due to the over 60 different cannabinoids that each have their own influence on the body. CBD is just one of these many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant.

What's a Cannabinoid?

If you're taking CBD for the first time, you're probably wondering what a cannabinoid is, we’ll get into that but first, we’ll focus on one specific cannabinoid: CBD. The human body contains many systems, which perform several functions such as the digestive, nervous, and respiratory systems. Our nervous system consists of the spinal cord, nerves, and brain. There’s one particular system that was discovered fairly recently in the 1980s called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). All mammals have ECS, which consists of chemical signaling and two (known) receptors that are bound to our amino acids. These receptors are known as the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor. These receptors are everywhere in the body, meaning that all of the other systems are actually modulated by the ECS system.

CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system and is usually consumed as CBD oil, but also comes in a variety of other products. CBD has been researched quite extensively in recent years, and due to all the curiosity and hype, the first highly concentrated CBD products have entered the market. Worldwide research results have led to the interpretation that CBD is safe, and won't cause any psychotropic effects. That's right, unlike its notorious counterpart THC, which is prominent in many strains of medicinal cannabis, CBD is not psychotropic. It doesn’t get you high, wired, blazed or stoned, the way a high THC containing strain would. Getting back to cannabinoids, there are many others such as CBG, CBN, and so on, however these cannabinoids have not been research as extensively as THC and CBD.

Exactly How Many Cannabinoids Exist?

The most well researched cannabinoids are still THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Almost everyone has at least heard of these compounds, whether they use cannabis for medical/recreational reasons or not. However, the list of cannabinoids that exist is much longer than THC and CBD. There isn't an exact number, but at least 60-100 different cannabinoids have been identified by researchers with many more thought to be undiscovered.

How Does the Body Use Cannabinoids?

Everyone reacts to cannabinoids differently, due the varying needs of our endocannabinoid systems. Cannabinoid receptors occur in nearly every major organ system, and depending on an individuals needs, the effects of cannabinoids can be very different from person to person. CB1 receptors are mostly found in the brain and central nervous system, while CB2 receptors are linked to the immune system cells. In simple words, the endocannabinoid system is like the body’s super computer, which automatically comes in to help our body maintain a healthy and stable environment.

By introducing cannabinoids to your system, cannabinoid receptors communicate to affect essential body processes, including memory, appetite, pain, mood, neuroprotection, immune function, cognitive processes, fertility, body temperature, and more.

... are there any side effects?

CBD is generally safe to use and practically free of side effects. Most people like to take CBD because they don't have to worry about any psychotropic effect when using CBD products. Many people who take CBD regularly say that there are not any side effects that disrupt day to day life activities. In addition, the tolerance, even with long-term use of a few drops of oil daily, is often described as very good. Taking CBD oil can cause mild side effects such as decreased appetite, diarrhea and drowsiness.

From a medical standpoint, there are very few reasons not to try cannabidiol. However, an interaction with conventional medication cannot be excluded in every individual case. CBD can potentially interact with prescription medications. This is because the way that your body metabolizes CBD can interfere with how your body will metabolize other medications you are taking. If medication is npt properly metabolized in the body, it can linger for a longer amount of time and cause unwanted side effects.

This is the reason why your medical practitioner should be informed or asked for advice before using cannabis products.

Categories Of Cannabinoids

There’s 3 categories of cannabinoids you should be aware of: Endocannabinoids which are naturally produced by the body, Phytocannabinoids which are found in the cannabis plant, and Synthetic cannabinoids which are produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Endocannabinoids naturally produced by the body are linked to a person’s experience of hunger, movement control, and pain. PhytoCannabinoids can affect the human experience of hunger, movement control, and pain if they communicate with your endocannabinoid system. Synthetic cannabinoids are commonly found in cosmetic and topical products.

Subcategories Of Cannabinoids

In order to simplify things a bit, let’s dive deeper into the subcategories of cannabinoids:

Major cannabinoids: Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Minor cannabinoids: Cannabichromene (CBC), Cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabinol (CBN), Cannabinodiol (CBDL)

Other cannabinoids: Cannabielsoin (CBE), Cannabitriol (CBT), Cannabicyclol (CBL)

Key Differences Between Cannabinoids

The most noticeable difference amongst cannabinoids is how psychoactive/psychotropic they are. For example, CBD, CBD, and CBG cannot induce psychotropic effects and this is simply because of their molecular structure. THC, CBDL, and CBN all show varying levels of psychoactivity and can produce psychotropic effects.

The most well-knows and researched cannabinoids are CBD and THC. CBD has remarkable properties that can also counter the mind-altering effects of THC. But what effects does CBD have on our bodies and health? And where does this healing substance come from?

The difference between CBD, Marijuana & Hash

Once the THC content in a cannabis plant is above 0.3%, its considered as medicinal and requires a prescription from your health care practitioner. Hemp derived CBD products do not come from medical cannabis products. Medicinal cannabis strains are also called "marijuana" by some, but this is mostly an outdated slang term. Mostly CBD-containing and almost THC-free cannabis products have nothing to do with the medical cannabis plants prescribed to patients by doctors. The psychotropic effects of cannabis oil depend very much on how much THC is contained in a cannabis plant or the end product made from it. Very different proportions of a cannabis plant can be used to manufacture the product. During processing, lumps and plates can be pressed from the resin, which are then also referred to as hash. Hash is also known for its rather high content of THC and thus has a strong psychotropic and intoxicating effect, in contrast to CBD.

You can read more about the differences between cannabis and hemp here.


CBD – 4 Facts Worth Knowing About Cannabidiol

  1. What effect does CBD have on the body and our health?
  2. From where is CBD obtained?
  3. Is CBD legal?
  4. CBD research

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    1. What Effect Does CBD Have On The Body And Our Health?

    CBD helps you keep your balance and control, thanks to CBD’s interaction with the endocannabinoid system. This system not only passes through your brain, but throughout your entire body, regulating functions such as hormone production, appetite, sleep, mood, pain sensation and immune system reactions. It might not be a miracle disease cure, but it can naturally improve your quality of life.

    CBD keeps the endocannabinoid system harmonious and balanced, supporting your overall sense of well-being. Simply put, cannabidiol and hemp help the EC-system to make important adjustments. Learn more about the endocannabinoid system here.

    CBD takes effect with differing speeds and intensities, depending on which product you use. In CBD oil, the dosage is absorbed through the mouth’s mucous membranes, sidestepping the stomach and thus taking effect faster and with more intensity than CBD capsules do. CBD diffuser pens, on the other hand, are absorbed through the lungs and thus take effect the quickest and most intensely.

    VAAY CBD Diffuser Pen Mint

    2. From Where Is CBD Obtained?

    Cannabidiol is primarily derived from the hemp plant. An ever-growing fanbase sings CBD’s praises, while few actually know the process through which CBD is derived to retain its terpenes and cannabinoids.

    This process is one of the safest and most effective ways to extract CBD in its essential components. See the most important processes listed in the following table:

    CBD extraction process
    Subcritical CO2 extraction process
    Supercritical CO2 extraction process
    Ethanol extraction
    Low pressure extraction
    Steam distillation extraction


    The most important step here is the supercritical CO2 extraction. Sounds complicated––and it is. So put away the little chemistry set. Producing hemp extracts yourself is no easy feat. The extract is produced alongside extractors, which separate the desired ingredients from the rest of the plant material under various pressure ratios and with help from carbon dioxide. This gentle extraction process means that the valuable components of the hemp plant remain unchanged. The intermediate product is a raw oil (crude oil, which has little to do with normal CBD oil) which is then cleaned and filtered through a second purification process. The final product is a natural full-spectrum hemp extract containing the important terpenes. What are terpenes? Learn more here.

    3. Is CBD legal?

    Let’s get one thing out of the way: this is no black and white topic. CBD legality differs from country to country, so does its government approval. In the United States, for instance, the FDA has yet to approve any CBD products for consumption, while it has approved a seizure treatment drug that contains a purified form of CBD. Is cannabidiol legal for UK users? Yes, because it’s not included under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. CBD is used, among others things, as a dietary supplement in the form of oil, a medicinal product when in the form of capsules, or cosmetics when in the form of CBD gel, for example.

    Important to note: The products you use must be THC-free. CBD does fall under the EU’s Novel Food policy, since it’s considered a new type of foodstuff. The Novel Food catalogue is applied differently from country to country, usually behooves the interpretation of the regional authorities, and is reviewed with each new product. This is no problem for consumers - it’s up to manufacturers and producers to ensure that they’ve dealt with it.

    If you travel with CBD products, for example CBD oil, you should know that the CBD itself is not a problem. However, you do need to be careful: if the product contains the slightest amount of THC, you should check the corresponding cannabis law of the country you’re traveling to.

    In the UK, the deciding law is the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act, which classifies cannabis as a Class B drug. For CBD to be legal, it has to be officially THC-free, meaning it contains less than 0.2% THC. It also has to be advertised as a nutritional supplement, not as medicine.

    Want to know more about CBD’s legal position? Our Hemp Wiki article Is Cannabidiol legal in the UK? answers the important legal questions.

    4. CBD Research

    Cannabinoids, specifically CBD, are being intensely researched for their perceived high potency and apparent health benefits. In 2019, over 500 CBD studies were published in medical journals. In comparison, 2017 yielded less than half that amount.

    What Current Studies Are Finding

    There are some studies out there which found that CBD may be able to ease Multiple Sclerosis, at least for some patients, but the benefits of cannabis use in people with Multiple Sclerosis are still currently being researched. The available data indicate that a cannabis extract with a roughly 1:1 CBD to THC ratio used as an oral spray may reduce pain and muscle spasms in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Still, more research is needed to determine whether readily available CBD products really can provide MS symptom relief, and to better understand how patients could be using them.

    According to a study presented at the 2019 American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting, Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to cut seizure occurrence by almost 50% in patients with Dravet syndrome. Also, back in 2017 the American scientist Prof. Orrin Devinsky investigated the use of CBD in Dravet syndrome. The study found that CBD can reduce and weaken the epileptic seizures during the disease. More than 100 children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years participated in this study. The children who participated in the research suffered from therapy-resistant seizures more than four times a month, despite the regular use of medication. The randomized controlled trial was conducted at 23 centers across the United States and in Europe. In the children and adolescents who received CBD, there was a marked decrease in the frequency of attacks from 12.4 to 5.9 per month. In comparison, the seizures in the placebo group decreased on average only from 14.9 to 14.1.

    Research On CBD and THC For Pain

    With a simple search online, you may come across tons of research on CBD and THC for chronic pain and inflammation. Although it may seem there are plenty studies and anecdotal evidence out there, there's still a lot more research needed for scientists to fully understand if CBD really may have any anti inflammatory benefits. In the meantime, the research on animals that has been found about using CBD for pain is promising. However, more clinical trials on people are needed to verify the pain-relieving benefits of CBD oil and medical cannabis products.

    Animal Studies

    Most of the other research you can find online about CBD’s potential health benefits are not done on people but primarily on animals. The lack of clinical trials on people is the reason why the research done so far is not clear and there's no solid conclusion people can rely on when it comes to long term benefits. CBD seems to be able to interact with the immune system, reduce inflammation, and reduce pain from a number of conditions in animals. Studies on animals date further back (as far as 2009). Some of the studies from recent years are listed below:

    2016: A study used CBD as a treatment for early pancreatic inflammation in pre-diabetic mice. (Inflammation of the pancreas can lead to diabetes) Mice who received 10 weeks of CBD therapy developed diabetes later than the mice that did not get the CBD treatment.

    2017: Another study on male rats examined the effects of CBD on osteoarthritis. After two weeks, acute inflammation of the joints was reduced by CBD therapy treatment applied to the affected area. CBD was also found to prevent the development of nerve damage and joint pain.

    In the largest study conducted in Germany to date, we interviewed two different test groups on the subject of the CBD and focused on the CBD experiences of CBD users and experts: CBD survey: What we really know about CBD!

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